Production - Northrop F-5A Freedom Fighter
The use of lightweight, easy to maintain was against USAF doctrine: heavy, fast flying aircrafts with a potent armament were preferred, hust the
opposite than Northrop lightweight fighter.
A political decision by US Prsident John F. Kennedy to deliver to friendly countries (within the Military Assistance Program) Northrop N-156Fs (called F-X program).
It was selected as winner on 09-08-62 and redesignated Northrop YF-5A
Production started on 22-10-62 when the USAF placed an order for 71 MAP
funded aircrafts, followed by a second one placed on 27-08-63 for
Fighters, to be supplied to friendly nations. It was planned to build
12 aircrafts per month, initial delivery planned
during the first quarter of 1965.
of two prototypes was a the time complete, now the third prototype
(originally stopped) could as well be completed, works already
starting on 26-04-62, followed by its first flight on 31-07-63.
This last was the first
airframe to feature all seven external stores
Production started immediately at the Hawthorne, a combined production line shared with the F-5B and Northrop T-38 trainer was capable of an output of
22 aircrafts per months. The first production/fourth prototype aircraft (63-08367)
flew for the first time in October 1963 (less then a month from the
it joined the test program at the end of 1963, together with
the second production/fifth prototype (63-08368).
Northrop delivered the first three protypes, now designated F-5A Freedom Fighter, to the Air Force by the third quarter (July-September) of Fiscal Year 1963.
On 30-06-1963 there were two active F-5A and one non-operational. First military test flight was on 14-08-63.
Category I testing took place between October 1962 and May 1965. First aircraft accepted for Category II tests by the Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards AFB,
was serial number 63-08367
on 01-02-64, performance, stability and control testing began on
30-04-64 with s/n 63-08368. Both Category II and III lasted
between February and October 1964. Tests continued till 1966; 16'000 flight hours were simulated.
Armament tested on the 5th prototype at Edwards AFB was the Bullpup air-to-ground missile
(an highly unpropable load due to the thin wings), together with bombs.
An operational requirement to incorporate two 20 mm Pontiac M-39A to increase Freedom Fighter's firing power was issued in 1964 by the USAF. Only a ranging set
mounted in the nose and an optical sight were at pilot's disposal for air-to-air and air-to-ground operations.
Approximately 140 USAF personnell from Tactical Air Command, Air
Training Command, Edwards AFB Flight Test Centre, together with
Northrop personnell, were involved
in 1030 trials flight hours during FY 1964. Acceptance of the first Freedom Fighter by Tactical Air Command was on 30-04-64. Future Williams
AFB instructor pilots were
also contemporanously trained.
The first production examples undergoing
in 1965 tests with wing and underfuselage tanks.
Photo: M. Hooks
Northrop F-5A was used for armament testing; here it is equipped with napalm/bombs.
Fatigue tests were carried out between 1964 and 1966 for a total of 16'000 simulated fight hours.
Northrop showed two of its Freedom Fighters (serials 69175/176) at the le Bourget air show while transting
Europe on delivery to Iran.
Serial 69176 (with code 203 on the nose) at le Bourget on 03-06-67. Photo: unknown
An USA official document states that
by September 1975 a Northrop reprsentative was
appointed to sell Northrop F-5s:
Belgium, Denmark, France,
Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the
See under the corresponding Air Forces pages for information regarding delivey/use of this version.
Production - Northrop F-5B Freedom Fighter
conversion on the new fighter dictated the construction of
a two-seater, designated Northrop F-5B. This had no cannon
armament but could carry any all other armament under the wings. One two-seater per
nine single-seaters was foreseen in the two initial
First flight of this
new version was on 24-02-64 by serial 63-8438; it was declared operational already
on 30-04-64, earlier than the
single-seater, which was in August 1964.
Deliveries started on April 30th, 1964 to the 4441st Combat Crew Training Squadron at
Williams AFB, a new USAF unit taking care of pilots belonging to the countries selected to receive the training aircraft.
Northrop F-5B 38438 with long nose pitot tube and underwing stores in 1964.
Sales demonstration was undertaken by the first company demonstrator between June and September 1964 in Europe and the Middle East:
Italy, Belgium, Germany and Saudi Arabia. Unfortunately it was lost during one of the last demonstration flights.
The second Northrop F-5B (serial 38445) replaced immediately the lost one.
The first company
demonstrator shown at Brussels-Zavestem in unusual colours on 28-06-64.
Unscheduled engine change was demostrated by the first Northrop F-5B in Saudi Arabia
The fourth production Northrop F-5B (serial 63-08421) with several design improvements and a more powerful GE
J-85-15 was used
for 7 hours/8 missions tests at Edwards AFB between the 9th and 15-06-65;
some of these improvements were later incorporated in
the development of
F-5As supplied to various Air Forces as well a being offered, without success, to Belgium.
Further engine trials took place at a later stage again on the Northrop F-5B company demonstrator with the much more powerful
General Electric J-85-21,
first flown as such on 28-03-69; they
lasted five months for a total of approximately 130 flight hours. This
engine was later to power the next generation fighter, Northrop F-5E Tiger.
Northrop F-5B 38445 with uprated General Electric J-85-21 (for Tiger) on a test flight.
mid-73 eighty-four of eighty-eight F-5B foreseen for MAP countries had
been handed over to the USAF for onward transfer, together
with 13 sold
under Foreign Military Sales program (2 to Lybia, 6 to Norway, 5 to
Iran); additional 2 FMS to Jordan were to be delivered to
Jordan begignning 1974.
static tests airframe (serialled C-8123) was withdrawn from use and
transferred to the Lackland AFB for preservation where it was seen
See under the respective Air Forces pages
for information regarding delivey/use of the Northrop F-5B.
Production - Northrop RF-5A Freedom Fighter
Necessity of a reconnaissance version for countries receiving Military Assistance Program help, was recognized by the mid 60s. An order
for 13 aircrafts for Iran
was placed in October 1967, followed by the first flight in May 1968.
Tests were held the same year at Edwards AFB
during the period July 1st
and August 28th with the first production aircraft (for Iran, s/n 67-21219) flying 58.8 hours in 47 test missions.
This version was only built for US allied Air Forces; USAF never adopted it, not even for training.
Northrop's own Northrop F-5A-15 serial 38372 was modified as RF-5A prototype in 1968, later modified again as F-5A-15 and used for tests.
Main difference to the fighter version was the modification of the nose
to mount four KS-92 cameras, otherwise retaining its combat
Photo: R.A. Scholefield
Second built Northrop RF-5A (for the Norwegian AF) seen at le Bourget air show on 07-06-69 before onward delivery to the air arm.