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Koninklijke Luchtmacht - Royal Netherlands Air Force

                                        Last update 01-11-2021



313 Squadron  also named Transition-Flying Unit by 1976, Motto: "ex umbra in umbras" (Out of bondage into freedom)

         "Twentse Ros" band/Squadron badge on tail

This was the second Squadron to be equipped with the Canadair firghter; it was re-established at Twenthe AB on 12-10-72, having formerly operated Lockeed T-33A and been disbanded on 01-01-59. It took over,
from the 315th Squadron,
resposability for the operational conversion of pilots returning from advanced training in the USA and Canada with Theatre Operational Converions Courses (TOCC) followed by Advanced
Operational Courses (AOC) to adjust to European operations (weather) and weapons usage.

Two Canadair NF-5A and 4 NF-5B visited Lakenheath AFB in 23-09 till 03-10-75 in a Squadron exchange with USAF's 493 Squadron McDonnell F-4Ds.

By beginning of 1976 it was reported to have 4 Canadair NF-5A,
10 Canadair NF-5B.

The Squadron was temporarely transferred in April 1976 to Hopsten AB (Germany) during reconstruction works at its homebase, Twenthe AB. In 1979 and 1981 it provided an aericobatic team.

Between 28-02 and 27-03-80 the Squadron partecipated to the exercise Anorak Express 80 in Norway, where its aircrafts where based at Bod.
Seven Canadair NF-5A and 13 NF-5B were on charge in April 1982; the high number of two-seaters reflects the training commitment of the unit. At this time it was also committed to temporary day interception duty
following the withdrawal of Lockheed F-104G fighters.


       Photo: unknown
               Canadair NF-5A K-3059 seen at Twenthe on 27-02-75.         Photo: H J van Brokhuizen          Canadair NF-5B K-4015 over an impressive Dutch winter landscape with original camouflage.

                                                                              Trainer in a two tone grey, toned down 313 Squadron tail badge.        Photo: R. Netherlans AF

                                                                       Photo: Archive The Northrop F-5 Enthusiast
"F-16" camouflage, big serial on tail of Northrop NF-5B K-4005

The unit was transferred to Soesterberg on 01-04-85 where it remained for only five months, returning to Twenthe in October 1985.
Training duties were partially 
(TOC Courses) transferred to 316 Squadron on 15-09-86. In August 1986 4 Canadair NF-5A/NF-5B participated from Waddington AFB to the exercise " Tactical Fighter Meet" together
that USAF, German, Danish, RAF, French and Belgian aircrafts.

Aircrafts belonging to the unit started to be adhorned by a "Twentse Ros" band on the second half of 1987.

                                                                         Photo: Archive The Northrop F-5 Enthusiast
                                                                          Canadair NF-5A K-3048 with all grey camouflage, small tail serial only and
"Twentse Ros" band
                                                                          in unusual position seen in August 1987.

June 30th 1987 saw the arrival of the first General Dynamics F-16A for the Squadron but the pilots were not yet ready to operate, the aircraft was transferred to another Squadron; the unit was integrated into the
315 Squadro
n on 30-03-88 (unofficially called 630 Squadron).

Ten Canadair NF-5A and 4 NF-5B plus 6 single-seaters on temporary duty (4 from the 313 and 2 from 316 Squadrons) were on strength by February 1988 In June 1988 the strength had changed to 11 Canadair NF-5A
and 4 NF-5B.

The Squadron operated its last Canadair NF-5 flight on 01-07-88, when NF-5A K-3045 made a flight around the Netherlands air bases, adorned by special colours to remember Dutch victory in the 1988 European soccer

                                                                             Formation flight of 313 Squadron Northrop NF-5As in all four different camouflages used

                                                                       Photo: Jos Wigbold
                                                                             Canadair NF-5A K-3045 in special colours seen in July 1988 shortly before retirement


314 Squadron    
Motto: "Per sapientam efficiens immortalis" (Efficent and immortal through knowledge)

     A short lived unit's aerobatic team was called "the Rascals", was raised in 1970, originally equiped with Republic F-64F; it performed in 1971 using Canadair NF-5A, for example at Eindhoven AB on
    September 18th.

   By March 1972 the Squadron was up to strength with 25 Canadair CF-5A and 6 NF-5B for the tactical strike role;
unfortunately two of each single- and doubleseaters had been lost by this time.
The last Dutch Canadair NF-5A (K-3075) was delivered to the Squadron on 20-03-74.

In September 1976 the unit participated to "Excercise Teamwork"  with 4 Northrop NF-5A, landing at RAF Wittering.
By beginning of 1976 it was reported to have 20 Canadair NF-5A and 6 Canadair NF-5B.

In March 1979 the Squadron moved again, temporarely (three months), to Gilze-Rijen AB while a new runway was built at Eindhoven.

During the season 19883/1984 it provided an aerobatic team. This flew starting with 1988 as "Double Dutch" team.

Eighteen Canadair NF-5A and 5 NF-5B were on strength
in April 1982, operating also on temporary day interception duty due to replacement of the Lockheed F-104G with the General Dynamics F-16. It moved
definitely to Gilze-Rijen from Eindhoven in 1988.

Eighteen Canadair NF-5A (4 loaned to the 313 Squadron) and 6 NF-5B were on strength by February 1988. In June 1988 the strength had been reduced to 11 Canadair NF-5A and 4 NF-5B.

A new era began in October 1989, when the Squadron abandoned the Canadairs, starting conversion to the new General Dynamics F-16A and F-16B; the Squadron still operated NF-5s till May 1990, when on
09-05-90 NF-5As  K-3052, K-3062 (in special red colours) and 1 NF-5B
overflew several former Canadair bases.


Canadair NF-5A K-3049 at Twenthe in April 1979.                                                                                  Canadair NF-5A K-4024 with a very unusual 314 Squadron badge, photographed in 1989.          
                                                                                                     Photos: Archive The Northrop F-5 Enthusiast

By February 1988 the establishment was: 18 Canadair NF-5A (3 loaned to the 313 Squadron) and 6 NF-5B.

 Canadair NF-5A K-3008 equipped with blue (excercise) Sidewinder in air-to-air combat configuration
       Canadair NF-5A K-3062 "REDSKINS GO F-16" Gilze-Rijen 08-05-90     Photo: Jos Wingold

Exercises and Squadron Exchanges As the only Dutch Squadron being part of the Allied Mobile Force 314 Squadron performed several Squadron exchanges and participated to many NATO exercises, particularly in
Norway. Some of them are: in
1972 "Strong Express" Bod AB (Norway); 1973 saw the participation to the "Bull's Eye" weapon meet at Schleswig AB (Germany); at the end of 1974 its NF-5s participated to exercise
"Barfrost", at 
Bod AB; exercise "Atlass Express" held at Bod AB during February/March 1976 saw the participation of 314 Squadron; in September 1976 the unit participated to "Excercise Teamwork"  with
4 Northrop NF-5A, landing at RAF Wittering
; Bardufoss AB was visited in September of the same year; six Canadair NF-5A had an exchange on 25-10-77 with 6 RAF Jaguars; on August 22nd, 1978 six Canadair NF-5A
went to Pferdsfeld AB for an exchange with JaBo Geschwader 35's McDonnell F-4F; 
5 Canadair NF-5A and 1 NF-5B (first of a total of 10 aircrafts) left Gilze-Rijen on March 14th, 1979 to
Bod AB, supported by a
Fokker F-27 for the 
traditional winter exercise in Norway, they attacked troops during a simulated beach landing, together with other Norwegian, Canadian, RAF units.

      Canadair NF-5A K-4021 being armed with bomb at BodAB (Norway) in the 1980s.                          Canadair NF-5A K-3070 at Bod AB in a grey day during exercise Anorak Express (07-03-80),
                                                                                      Photo: Vliegende Hollander                        waiting for its turn to take-off after an USAF F-4.                                        Photo: US DoD

Beginning of 1980,
between March 14th and 19th, 314 Squadron particiated to exercise "Anorak Express" at Bod AB ; the aircrafts had left Eindhoven on 05-03-80, two of its aircrafts almost collided with a Russian
Tu-16 Badger during this exercise;
the exercise "Priory 2-80" saw the participation from Binbrook AB and Coningsby AB (UK) of 4 Canadair NF-5A each of the 314 and 316 Squadron; during May 1984 314 Squadron sent
some NF-5A to Villafranca AB (Italy).

                                                                                 Photo: Roberto Pisapia
                                                                      Canadair K-3067
on an Italian base during July 1982 in a very sunny day.

315 Squadron   Motto: "nec timid, nec tumide"   (neither fear, nor overconfidence)

Seen on K-4021 in the 80's in front of air inlet

                    Toned-down tail badge   

315 Squadron,
formerly based at Eindhoven AB and equipped with Republic F-84F, was the first unit to be equipped with the Canadairs taking over training at Twenthe AB of initial Canadair NF-5B and NF-5A crews
Transitie Vliegopleiding (TVO). It had the responsability to initially introduce the new aircraft, to convert pilots and, later, to be a fully operational attack unit. Sixteen of its own pilots had earlier received conversion
training in Canada.
The Squadron's first Canadair NF-5 arrived at Twenthe in December 1969, official withdrawal date of Republic F-85F was on 01-05-70. A total of 30 C
anadair NF-5A and 15 NF-5B were initially on its strength, both at
Twenthe AB and Gilze-Rijen AB.
Full operational status was reached on 01-12-71. The unit strength was reduced to 25 NF-5A and 6 NF-5B on 12-10-72, when the training task was officially handed over to the 313th
Squadron and it operated in the tactical strike role only, 
receiving the last Dutch doubleseater (K-4030) on 20-03-74.

The Squadron operated with 4 single- and 1 doubleseaters an exchange during June 1975 an exchange with Creil AB based Mirage IIIB.

Reconstruction works at its homebase, Twenthe AB during April 1976 compelled the temporary transfer of the unit to Ahlhorn AB (Germany). By beginning of 1976 it was reported to have 23 Canadair NF-5A and 8
Canadair NF-5B.

During the year 1982 its aircrafts were committed for a few months to temporary day interception duty following the withdrawal of the Lockheed F-104G.

                                                                        Canadair NF-5A K-3028, 315 Squadron, photographed in January 1985 in so-called F-16 camouflage,
                                                                        toned-down Squadron badge, big tail serial. It is armed with inert AIM-9J Sidewinder body and
                                                                        active head.
                                                     Photo: Archive The Northrop F-5 Enthusiast

The unit began conversion to the General Dynamics F-16 in March 1986, when it had the honour to be the first NF-5 equipped unit to transition, but flew Canadairs till October 1986.

Exercises and Squadron Exchanges A few known are: six German AF Lockheed F-104G an 1 TF-104G from JagdBomber Geschwader 34 came to Twenthe AB in 1976 as part of a wide Squadron exchange programm;
from 24-10-78 315 Squadron sent 6 Canadair NF-5A and 1 NF-5B to Istrana AB (Italy) for an exchange visit to the Lockheed F-104S equipped 22nd Gruppo (Squadron).

316 Squadron   Motto: "Doelbewust en Trefzeker"  (Purposeful and on target)

                  "Wer Dir" band, Squadron badge on tail

The unit, flying Republic RF-84F, had been deactivated on 15-01-58. Initial NF-5A reached the Squadron already beginning of June 1970 but this was officially re-established at Eindhoven AB only on 01-06-71,
when the large 314 Squadron was split to form the new 316 Squadron; work-up was on 22
Canadair NF-5A and 5 NF-5B after having been transferred to Gilze-Rijen AB on 27-04-72.

By beginning of 1976 it was reported to have 22 Canadair NF-5A and 5 Canadair NF-5B. In September 1976 the unit participated to "Excercise Teamwork"  with 6 Northrop NF-5A. Several training excercises were held
with transfer to the United Kingom, for example on 09-08-77 when 10 Canadair NF-5A and 3 Canadair NF-5B went went to Alconbury AFB.
In 1978 an Aerobatic Team was organised.

Canadair NF-5A K-3017, 316 Squadron in original camouflage seen at Eindhoven AB in March 1987          Canadair NF-5A K-3072 with red fuselage band/under fuselage tank partially red seen in 1979.

                                                                           Photo: Archive The Northrop F-5 Enthusiast
                                                                                     Canadair NF-5B K-4026, 316 Squadron, all-grey as seen in September 1989.

The strength was by February 1988 12 Canadair NF-5A (2 loaned to the 313 Squadron) and 10 NF-5B.

The Squadron stood-down on 01-05-91, being the last Dutch Squadron on Canadair NF-5 to start transition to the General Dynamics F-16A. Before that, on 15-03-91, a flypast was organised on various air bases,
starting from
from Eindhoven to commemorate the withdrawal of the type with 12 Canadair NF-5s, but, due to poor visibility, only 3 Canadair NF-5B (K-4009, K-4015, K-4019) could participate.

Exercises and Squadron Exchanges
Only a few of many participations are listed hereunder:

In August 1974 NF-5s of the Squadron flew to Sollingan AB (Germany) for an exchange with Canadair CF-104 of the 1st Canadian Air Group; during June 1975 NF-5As of the 316 Squadron went to Gioia del
Colle AB (Italy), while Lockheed F-104S of the 53 Stormo came to the Netherlands.

The year 1976 saw the transfer in June of 5 Canadair NF-5A and 2 NF-5B to Hahn AFB ; the Squadron sent between 12-04 and 24-04 1977 four Canadair NF-5A and 2 NF-5B to Spandahlen AFB (Germany) in an
exchange with McDonnell F-4C of the 52nd Tactical fighter Wing; in 1978, between 23 May and 1st June 5 Northrop F-5A and 1 F-5B were hosted at 
Gilze-Rijen AB.

Late June 1979 two of its NF-5A conducted electronic warfare trials with RAF Comet 4 serial XV814.
Another exercise, "Priory 2-80", took place in 1980 when 4 Canadair NF-5A each of the 314 and 316 Squadron went to Binbrook AB and Coningsby AB (UK).

June 1982 saw the transfer to the farthest base ever reached by NF-5s: 3 single and 2 double-seaters from this Squadron went to Bandirma AB (Turkey).
Between June 19th and August 5th 4 Canadair NF-5A and 2 NF-5B were based at Karup AB (Denmark) to make space to aircrafts participating to the NATO Tactical Air Meet.


  Field Technic Training Unit / Testgroep Vliegtuigbeproevingen NF-5
"Field Technic Training Unit" was in charge of aircrafts technical evaluation at Twenthe AB when Canadair NF-5A K-3001 was delivered on 29-07-71. As this aircraft was to develop the flight manual
  for   the
Canadair fleet and evaluate all modification to the a separate unit was formed on 19-0971, the "Testgroep Vliegtuigbeproevingen NF-5". The cannons were replaced by test and measuring
  equipment, special sensors were applied on the wings and fuselage. Help could granted by other aicrafts, like Canadair NF-5B K-4006 or K-4007.
 Several tests were performed, amongst which the in flight dropping of 275 gallon tanks, the introduction of Paveway laser bombs, cluster bombs (by K-4006 between 1975 and 1976), chaff flare

The unit was disbanded on 12-04-84, the last flight of K-3001 for the Testgroep had been on 07-03-84; all test equipment was removed and the aircraft was re-delivered to the 313 Squadron on 22-10-84.

      Canadair NF-5A K-3001 with extended nose pitot and NF-5B K-4007, also used for tests,           Canadair NF-5A K-3001 wearing both Testgroep and 313 Squadron badge
      at Twenthe AB 10-78                                   Photo: Archive The Northrop F-5 Enthusiast          seen at Soesterbeg AB on 03-04-85


Depot Vliegtuigs Materieel (DVM)  Aircrafts and Material Depot - Gilze-Rijen AB/Woendsrecht AB

The DVM was responsible for the storage of supplies and overhaul of the aircrafts maintenace of the Canadairs. Short term stored aircrafts kept their colours and badges before being transferred to operational
Squadrons. Canadairs withdrawn from use were handed over to the DVM at Gilze-Rijen AB, the engines run every 45 day and a short test flight was flown every 90 days. This was stopped in late 1980 and the
aircrafts were transferred to Woendsrecht AG, due to space problems, for definitive storage.

   Many long term stored aircrafts obtained a badge on their tails vith the inscripton VUD -Vliegend Uit Dienst-Phasing out in Flying Condition. The unit was taking care of 16 Canadair NF-5A
  and 6 NF-5B by February 1988.

  By June 1988  ther were only 5 Canadair NF-5A and 1 NF-5B together with   10 NF-5A and 1 NF-5B at Gilze-Rijen.

                                      Canadair NF-5B K-4002 in so-called "F-16" camouflage, ex 313 Squadron, with VUD badge at
                                      Woendsrecht in May 1990; in the background an NF-5A in original camouflage.
                                                                                                           Photo: Archive The Northrop F-5 Enthusiast

    Photo: Theo van Vliet
Tails of VUD NF-5B K-4010 in first, K-4002 in F-16 and Northrop NF-5A K-3035 all grey camouflage at Gilze-Rijen March 1988.