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                          Last update 17-07-2021

Brazil Operations











  Bases












EXERCISES

DOMESTIC EXERCISES
Intensive training allowed a first cross-country exercise to be held starting on 29-06-77, when 4 F-5E from 1░/14░ GAv took-off from Canoas AB and landed, after a 3 hr 45 min  flight, at Fortaleza. They had flown
3'500 kms non-stop, at a heighth of 10'000 meters, being in-flight refuelled over Belo Horizonte by an KC-130H; contemporaneously the 1░ Grupo de Caša also transferred some Tigers to Fortaleza.

The end of 1977, between 12 and 17th December, saw the transfer to Fortaleza of the two Tiger equipped Grupos de Aviašao to participate to the 36th Tournament of Fighter Aviation, together with the Mirage
equipped ALA, the Embraer AT-26 equipped 1░/4░ GrAv, 3░ Esq. de Instrušao Aerea and the Neiva AT-28 equipped CATR

During the annual air-to-ground excercises at Natal, the 1░GAv takes care for the air defence of Southern Brazil from Canoas AB whe locally based 1░/14░ GAv is dilocated to Natal AB.

Norhrop F-5E aerobatic capabilities have enthusiasted Brazilian crowds during many air shows that have been held during years all over the country as part of the public relations activities of the Forša Aerea
Brasileira.
Among them the yearly "Dia da Caša" (April 22nd) to celebrate the participation of the Brazilian af to the World War 2. All fighter units, including those equipped with Embraer EMB-326/AT-26 and Embraer
AMX/A-1, participate to the event.


The  aircrafts gave a fire-power
demonstration with all their armament (cannons, bombs, rockets, napalm) until 1999.

After that year only overflights
and an armament show inside the "Zeppelin" hangar have been organised due to financialconstraints.

                                          Overview of Santa Cruz AB on 22-04-04. Note the enormous size of the "Zeppelin" hangar.
                                                                Photo: Brazilian AF
                            
   F-5E 4837 1░GAvCa Santa Cruz 22-04-85 armed with 2 napalm canisters followed by another                            F-5E 4828 1░/14░GAv Santa Cruz 22-04-85 armed with bombs. Note white last two of serial
   armed with 4 canisters. Note last two of serial written in white on tail.                                                    on tail and Squadron badge on air inlet.      Photo: The Northrop F-5 Enthusiast
                                                                    Photo: The Northrop F-5 Enthusiast
Another regular event was the Torrneo de Aviašao de Caša (Fighter Aviation Tournament). The 25th took place at Anapolis AB between the 5th and 12th October 2005, when alll Northrop F-5 units participated.
"OperašŃo Ilha da Magia"
Eight Northrop F-5E of the 1░GAvCa, 5 Embraer EMB RT-26 of the Esquadrao Poker and 1 Boeing KC-137 participated in May 1997 to this exercise, whose aim was fround attack, air defence, low altitude navigation,                           in-flight refuelling plus tactical reconnaissance operating from Florianopolis AB. Two of the Northrop F-5Es was equipped with underwing Python 3 air-to-air-missiles.

"OperašŃo Vaga-Lume"
 Northrop F-5E in dissimilar combat with Embraer/Aermacchi 326 of the 1░ Escuadrao/4░ Grupo de Aviašao                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Photo: Brazilian AF
        
Excercise hold at Natal AB by the 1░ Grupo Aviašao de Caša, between the 9th and 23rd November 2003, including ground support and dissimilar air combat operations against Embraer/Aermacchi 326 (2x2,
2x1 aircrafts),






   "Operašao Pampa 2005": extensive combined Army, Navy, Air Force exercise in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and ParanÓ between
   the 10th    and the 20th October 2005 saw the participation of the locally (Canoas) based 1░/14░ GAvCa in addition to
   Mirage IIID/E, EMB-326, Embraer A-1/TA-1, KC-130H, KC-137.
   Also participating (for the first time to an exercise) were 1 EMB R-99A, R-99B, both from the 2░/6░ GAv, for Airborne Early Warning &    Control AEW) duties.


   Photo: Brazilian AF

"Operašao Camofo" Took place between 24-10-15 till 01-11-05 at Belo Horizote airport. At least four Northrop F-5E participated to it.

A less glamorous, but important exercise for interoperative use of the forces, took place from 10-12- till 12-12-08 between the F-5EM of the 1░ GAvCa and the Douglas AF-1 (Douglas A-4KU) of the Brazilian
Navy VF-1 Squadron. All aircrafts were based at Santa Cruz AB, acting alternatively as interceptors or targets.

   "Operašao Laguna"
     
    This was an air-to-air refuelling excercise on 02-10-09 involving 1 Lockheed KC-130, from Campo Grande AB; 4 Embraer/Northrop F-5 received a total of approximately 12'000 litres fuel in two
    times each.
 
    Additional  aircrafts taking part ot the excercise were Embraer A-29 Super Tucano, Embraer E-99, R-99, Lockeed C-130 and KC-137 together with Army and Navy units.




 
 Five F-5EM of the 1░/14░ GAv participated from Canoas AB to the exercise "Operašao Lašador" brtween 16th and 27th November 2009, the biggest combined Army/Navy, Air Force exercise,
 together with Mirage 2000, Embraer A-1s/RA-1,  EMB-326, AT-29, AEW, transport and SAR  aircrafts.


"OperašŃo Amaz§nia"
This yearly held, joint Army-Navy-Air Force exercise takes place in the north of the country; all kind of aircrafts and helicopters participate to it.  

The 2012 edition started on September 17th; particular attention was given to a new concept of air defence command and control; most used aircrafts (inclusive Northrop/Embraer F-5EM and Embraer AMX/A-1)
were based at Manaus but the centre responsible for the execution of the operations was in Rio de Janeiro, more than 4'000 km away.
In-flight refuelling was also extensively trained: Embraer/Northrop F-5EM (1░/4░ GAv) took off from Porto Velho to be refuelled by an KC-130 from the Esquadrao Gordo.

Transportex 2012
Enbedded in this, mainly transport units operation, an inflight-refuelling exercise took place on 22-03-12; one Boeing KC-137 of the 2░/2░ Grupo de Transporte refuelled 2 Embraer/Northrop F-5EM out
of Belem AB.

"Barao I"
This exercise was specifically hold between the 26th and 30th March 2012 to train new pilots pilots in the in-flight refuelling technics, both during the day and night. Embraer/Northrop F-5M from the 1░/14░ GAV
and 1░/4░ GAV were involved from Canoas AFB, refuelling from Lockheed KC-130 Hercules of the 1░/1░ GT.

In-flight refuelling

 
  The first KC-130H tanker arrived at Campo dos Alfonsos AB (Rio de Janeiro) on 03-10-75 followed by the second one on 18-12-75. They were attached to the 2░ Esquadrao/1░ Grupo de
  Transporte de Tropa "Cascavel";  in-flight refuelling several F-5s contemporaneously was possible and they kept the ability to operate as cargoes.

  In-flight refuelling training started immediately, enabling to demonstrate this capability for the first time on 21-04-76 at Anapolis AB (Brasilia) and on 22.04.76 at the yearly Dia da Caša (Fighter
  Day) at S Cruz AB.


This last event was attended by 28 F-5s, 2 showing this capability, while the others, including some with a reconnaissance nose, showed their fighter-bombing capability. One of the first night Northrop F-5E
air-refuelling by an KC-130H took place on May 76, involving two Tigers.

In 1985 the 2░/1░ GTT passed its 2 Lockheed KC-130H to the 1░Esquadrao/1░ Grupo de Transporte "Gordo"

 

 
The Grupo received the two tankers in 1985 but used them exclusively on transportation duties. This was changed in 2004 when, on 15-03-04,  8 F-5E were in flight-refuelled over the sky
 of Florianopolis.



  During the same year (1985) the 2░ Esquadrao/2░ Grupo de Transporte "Corsario" was activated, supplementing with its 4 Boeing KC-137 the KC-130Hs of the 1░/1░GT and enabling much
  more flexible refuelling conditions.They were equipped with 2 Beechcraft Model 1080 pods, enabling 2 aircrafts to be refuelled contemporarely, had an higher velocity and service ceiling
  in comparisation with the Lockheed KC-130s. The aircrafts were delivered between 1986 and 1987, first contact was with 4 Northrop F-5s on 02-12-86.


  One Boeing KC-137s crashed on 26-05-16; the remaining 3 were 0fficially deactivated on 10-10-13 (to be replaced by Embraer KC-390s) and sold to Israel for spares.


                            frame 1          Photo: Brazilian AF
                                                                                  F-5E 4826 being refuelled in flight during exercise Cruzex, August 2004.

Newly modified Northrop F-5EM re-equipped 1░/4░ GAV which conducted between the 7th and the 17th May 2013 air-combat exercises with air-refuelling and interception missions.

Exercisio Tecnico BVR2/Sabre This excercise took place, starting from 20-08-18 and endied 06-09-18, at Anapolis AB, with the object to train personnel for BVR (Beyond Visual Range) operations. Paticipating
Northrop F-5s were aircraft from: 1░ GAVCA, 1░GDA Jaguar; 1░/14░ GAV Pampa; 1░/4░ GAV, together with AMX and S, Tucano equipped units and the Navy Douglas A-4 of the VF-1. It was trainining for the next
international Exercise.
The last operation of the excercise saw the Northrop F-5EM Derby a-a missiles aircrafts escorting Embraer A-1 (AMX) fighter bombers as well as reconnaissance Embraer RA-1 (AMX).

Exercisio Tecnico BVR3 Betwen November 10th and 14th 2019 a total of 12 infra-red Mectron MAA-1 Piranha, plus some 5 IAI Python 3/IAI Python 4 were launched over the Atlantic Ocean, 180 kms from the Canoas AB
in order to the test various air-to-air missiles equipping the Tigers.

Also available was the Derby. Aircrafts/crews of the 1░/░ GAvCa, 1░/4░ GAvCa, and 1░/14░ GAvCa took part. Missiles MAA-1 were launched by an Embraer/Northrop F-5EM again a flare, also  launched by an Embraer/
Northrop F-5M.

Ejercicio de Combate Tecnico (EXETEC CBT F-5) Aircrafts from the 1░ GAVCa/Senta a Pua from Santa Cruz AB/Ala 12,  the 1░ GDA/Jaguar from Anapolis AB, the 1░/14░ Gruoi de Aviacion/Pampa, the 1░/4░ GAV/Pacau
participated to the
  which took place) between the 5th and 16th July 2021, excercise centered on Behind Visual Range (BVR) combat.

INTERNATIONAL EXERCISES

Starting from 1977 Brazilian F-5Es, based at Salvador AB, have participated to "Unitas"; mainly a naval exercise with South American (Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Chile) and USA navies participated. Tigers have been active
attacking ships after they had been localized by Grumman S-2 Trackers, later by Embraer P-95; in the meantime Embraer A-1s have taken over this role.

In 2005 1░ GAvCa Embraer/Northrop F-5EM (together with Embraer AMX) fought in 20015 against US Navy McDonnell F-18 from the arcraft carrier USS George Washington to verify pilot's readiness; initially with
Embraer/Nortrop F-5 and Embraer AMX executing bombing, both over the sea and land, while US Navy Donnell F-18 were the defencers. Next day were the roles inverted. Beyond Visual Range (BVR) with Pyton 4 and
Within Visual Range (WVR) combats with cannons and short distance missiles; Lockheed KC-130 provided air refuelling and Embraer E-99 assured electronic coverage to the Brazilians.
The first combined USA/Brazilian "Tiger I" exercise took place at Muniz ANGB, Puerto Rico, between October 17th and 21st 1994. It saw the long transfer to the Carribean island of Northorp F-5Es in conjunction with
Embraer AMXs from Santa Cruz AB.

"Tiger II" exercise was held at Natal AB between October 21st and 30th 1995; the Puerto Rico Air National Guard deployed 6 F-16A, 2 F-16B of the 198th Fighter Squadron while the 2░/1░ GAvCa and 1░/14░ GAvCa
sent 5 Northrop F-5Es and 1 F-5F each, accompanied by Embraer AMXs of the 1░/16░ GAvCa and Mirage IIIEBs of the 1░ GDA. Mixed formations were flown both for ground attack (F-16/F-5/AMX) as well as air
defence (F-16/Mirage) sorties. This was the first time since World War 2 that a USAF unit deployed to Brazil.

This excercise was followed between March 9th and 16th, 1996 by  "Tiger III", the deployment of 5 F-16Cs, 1 F-16D of the US Reserve 93th Fighter Squadron to Santa Maria AB, together with two KC-135 of the 434th
Air Refueling Wing. They engaged against Embraer AMX/A-1s and Northrop F-5Es and served to develop A-1 and F-5 tactics to avoid F-16 missile strikes.




During "Tiger III" an USAF KC-135Rs refueled for the first time a Brazilian
F-5Es, using a drogue funnel fitted to the boom as normal USAF airrefueling booms are not compatible with the F-5 probe. The refuelling established that the two Air Forces could deploy together.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Photo: USAF
"Salitre 2004": the 1░/1░GAvCa, based at Iquique (Chile), with 5 F-5Es in the air-to-air and air-to-ground missions participated from 26-09-04 till 10-10-04, together with Chilean AF Dassault Elkans, Dassault Panteras,
Cessna A-37B attack/fighters, transport aircrafts and helicopters; Argentina sent Dassault Mirage IIEA and Daggers, while 6 USAF Gneral Dynamics F-16Cs were also present.
Little is known of the exchange tour of Brazilian pilots with their Chilean colleagues. One pilot of 1░ GAv and 1░/14░ GAv completed their tour with the Antofagasta based Grupo de Aviacion n░7 at the end of 2007.
CRUZEX
This is the only inter-South American (with additional countries participeting) excercise. Fighters have been mainly based at Natal AB, in-flight refuellers at Recife AB,  plus helicopters. It is based on the experience gained
in various armed conflicts (Kosovo, Gulf War, etc) and NATO procedures and 
developed into the most important combined South American/European excercise
  
   "Operašao Cruzeiro do Sul" also referred as "Cruzex I/2002"
   
Took place 29-04-02 ti1l 11-05-02 at Canoas AB; 5 Northrop F-5E from the ░/1░GAvCa and the locally based Northrop F-5E/F of the 1░/14░ GAv  participated to the   excercise together with aircrafts                                  
   from Argentina (6 Mirage 5), France (4 Mirage 2000-5)






 
  "Cruzex II", also referred as "Cruzex 2/2004"
  At the second edition the same countries and aircrafts were present, plus Venezuela (General Dynamics F-16, Mirage 50), flying from Natal AB and Fortaleza AB.
         frame 1          Photo: Guillermo Sentis
                           Versatility of the Northrop F-5E is shown here; serial carries Brazilian air-to-air missiles Piranha in March1999

"Cruzex III" took place from 21-08-06 till 01-09-06; 6 F-5EM from 1░/14░ GAv, based at Campo Grande for air defence and 5 F-5EM, based at Anapolis for air-defence/strike, in addition
 to several Brazilian strike-fighters. AEW, transport and rescue aircrafts and helicopters.
 Also present were
 Argentinian 2 McDonnel/Douglas A-4AR, 2 FMA IA.58 PucarÓ; France with 8 Dassault Mirage2000C/N, 1 Boeing E-3F;  Venezuela with 3 General Dynamics F-16A, 3 Dassault Mirage 50,
 2 Canadair CF-5A, 1 Boeing KC-707;  Chile with 6 Cessna A-37B; Uruguay with 3 Cessna A-37C, 3 FMA IA.58 PucarÓ.
This excercise was of particular importance due to the participation of F-5EM, the advanced French Mirage 2000 as well as  Early Warning aircrafts two Embraer R-99A and one French
Boeing E-3F. The combination of the AEW aircrafts and of Derby air-to-air missiles resulted in at least one
victorious Brazilian duel 
against the French combination, "shooting down" (according to unofficial infomation) two Mirage 2000C and 1 Mirage 2000N.



"Cruzex IV" took place at Natal AB between the 1st and 14th November 2008, with the participation of 6 Embraer/Northrop F-5EM of the 1░ GAvCa and 1░/14 GAvCa based at Natal AB,
GAMD Mirage 2000(Brazil), GD F-16 (USA, Chile, Venezuela), Embreaer A-29 (Brazil, Ecuador),  IA-58 Uruguay and Cessna A-37 (Colombia, Uruguay)






 "Cruzex V" followed between 18-10-10 and 19-11-10 with the participation of 6 Embraer/Northrop F-5EM belonging to the 1░ Grupo de Aviašao de Caša acting as aggressors against
 French Rafales, USAF and Chilean F-16s, Argentinian A-4R and Uruguayan A-37 from Fortaleza AB, in-flight refuelled by one Lockheed KC-130 of the 1░/1░ Grupo de Transporte.

 



   "Cruzex VI" 16 Embraer/Northrop F-5EM and 1 Embraer/Northrop F-5FM belonging to the 1░ GAvCa, the 1░/14 GAvCaša and the 1░/4 GAvCaša were present at Natal AB
   between 04-11-13 and  15-11-13. They mixed with Brazilian Mirage 2000 and Embraer AMX/A-1, RA-1, F-16s belonging to Chile, the USAF (AIM-120 armed), Venezuela;
   Cessna A-37 from Colombia, Uruguay, Embraer A-29 from Ecuador. Focus was on co-operation between aircrafts of different countries. Two Embraer E-99 (Emb-145) provided detection
   of participating aircrafts at low altitude.
   On November 2nd two Embraer/Northrop F-5EM and 2 GAMD Mirage 2000 were for the first time in-flight refuelled by a Colombian Boeing KC-767; 4 Colombian A-37s were in return
   in-flight refuelled by an Brazilan Lockheed KC-130 the same day.
   The exercise was not conventional as it took place against insurgent/paramilita forces and not for the conflict between two countries.


 "Cruzex VII" 2013 (same badge as Cruzex VI)
Brazil participated to the 2013 edition with 17 Embraer/Northrop F-5, held during 12 days in the Northern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Norte, Paraiba, Permambuco flying from Natal AB and Recife AB.
It lasted from 05-11-13 till 15-11-2013.
   
Other fighters from following countries participating: Chile (F-16s), Colombia (A-37), Ecuador (S. Tucano), USA (F-16s), Venezuela (F-16s) and Uruguay (A-37, Pucara).

                                                frame 1            Photo:  Brazilian AF
                                             Unlkely friendly companions...........Embraer F-5EM and Venezuelan F-16 1041 at Cruzex 2013
      




    "Cruzex 2018" (same badge as Cruzex VI)
     hwas eld betwwen 18 and 30-11-18; main focus was of conventional warfare. Brazil operated with Embraer/Northrop F-5EM and Embraer AMX fighters;
    Peru participated for the first time with aircrafts, 4 Mirage 2000 and 4 Cessna A-37B; it had earlier sent only observers. From Uruguay came 4 Cessna A-37C
    and Chile with 5 General Dynamict F-16 and   1 KC-135; the USA with 6 General Dynamict F-16 and 1 KC-135; France sent only 1 C-135 transporter.

    Aircrafts were alternatively assigned to red (attack) and blue (defensive) forces.


   Cruzex 2018: Excercise blue and red forces patches    Photos: Marcelo Borges

    Photo Brazilian AF/DCTA
         Launch of a Rafael 3 from an Embraer/Northrop F-5EM

                                                                        Photo Brazilian AF/DCTA
                                                                                              Missiles armed Embraer/Northrop F-5EM launching flare

Excercise Sabre was held at Anapolis AB in June 2016, at least 3 Embraer/Northrop F-5EM and 1 F-5M taking part.

A Beyod Visual Range Weapons Launch Campaign for Embraer/Northrop F-5EM and Embraer AMX-1 was hold in Canoas AB from 01-04-19 till 16-04-19 involving the 1st/1st GAvCa Jambock, the 1st/4th GAvCa Pacau
and the the 1st/14th GAvCa. Launched were a dozen Mectron MAA-1 Piranha assisted by speciallists of Mectron an Odebrecht Defense Technology and probably Rapahael Python 4. This excecise was promoted to train
pilots and squadrons warfare spcialists; it included launches of several, different types of weapons.

"Exercicio Operacional Tinia" was hold betwen 08-11-19 and 03-12-19 in the Southern part of the country; it involved Wing 3 at Ala 3 and 4 based at Canoas AB and S. Maria AB with more than 50 fighter (among which
the Ala 3 Northrop 7 Embraer/Northrop F-5EM and 1 F-5FM, Embraer A-1 /AMX, tansports, helicopters and reconnaissance airctrafts.

                                                                             Photo: Brazilian AF Sgt Bianca
                                        Landing Embraer/Northrop F-5EM 4846 during the Excercise Tinia, note badge Dimenšao Organisacion 22 on tail (see page Brazil units)

Dissimilar training Embraer/Northrop F-5EM and Embraer A-29 Super Tucano
First dissimilar training between an high-performance aircraft (cannon and Python armed F-5EM) and a low-performance (A-29 S. Tucano) took place between the 12th and 15th December 2016. Involved were aircrafts
from 1░/4░ Esquadrao and the 1░/3░ Grupo Aviacao taking off from Manaus AB and Boa Vista AB.

Red Flag
The Forša Aerea Brasileira participated for the first time to  (Red-Flag 08 3) in the year 2008 with 6 Embraer F-5EM of the 1░/14░ GAv, taking place at Nellis AFB between July 21st and August 1st; the aircrafts had
mainly escort duties for fighter-bombers (Turkish F-16s, Swedish Gripens), bombers (Boeing B-52s) and AEW aircrafts operating against AIM-120 AMRAAM armed McDonnell F-15C and General Dynamics F-16CG
operating in an BVR scenario. The aircrafts performed with great success, even though not all integrated systems were operational as the software had not yet obtained the definitive certification and the Data Link
abd the Helmet Mounted Display were not yet installed.

                                                   Photo: Brazilian AF
                                                Three Embraer/Northrop F-5EM queing up to be in-flight refuelled on their way to Nellis AFB

"Salitre 2014" was kept at Antogasta (Chile) from 06-10-14 till17-10-2014; 4 Embraer F-5EM of the 1 Grupo de Aviašao de Caša participated in the air-to-air role, training missiles Python 4 were operational. One
Lockheed KC-130 provided in-flight refuelling. Opponents were Chilean Northrop F-5E and General Dynamics F-16 plus Argentinian Douglas A-4, Uruguyan A-37 and USAF General Dynamics F-16s. Operational
availability of 95 percent was reached during more than 30 missions.

"Operašao Python" is the name given for for the certification of air-to-air training missile Rafael 4 , which started in March 2017 and ended late Jun; 1░/14 GAvCa Northrop F-5EM paticipated to it.

 INTERCEPTION







    Interception of a British Vulcan bomber
    The Falkland/Malvinas war gave an unexpected opportunity to test the air defence organisation and the Northrop F-5E.
    On June 3rd, 1982 Avro Vulcan Mk B.2 (serial XM597) returning from a strike mission armed with two live Westinghouse
    AGM-45 Shrike anti-radar missiles had an emergency situation; it had been hit by the Argentine Port Stanley anti-aicraft
    defence at its fuel system. The crew decided to land at Rio de Janeiro-Galeao civil airport; two Northrop F-5E belonging
    to the 1░ GRAVCA were scrambled from Santa Cruz AB to intercept it, till that moment, unknown aircraft. This was i
    ntercepted when it was already on Brazilian territory.




     Photo: Aerovisao (fake?)






Northern Air Defence
Retirement of the Anapolis AB based Mirage IIIE on 31-12-05 gave, from 31-12-05, alternatively to the 1░ GAv and 1░/14░ GAv the task to defend, with 2 F-5E, the Northern part of the country until the arrival of
Mirage 2000s bought in France. The first 2 Tigers (serials 4820, 4827 from 1░GAv) arrived at Natal AB on 14-12-05 during the Mirage retirement ceremony. The new Mirages arrived at Anapolis AB on 27-09-07,
releasing shortly after the F-5s from their Northern Air Defence duties.

Withdrawal of the Mirage 2000 at the end of 2013 saw again Embraer/Northrop F-5EM taking over air defence over the area around Brasilia, at least until a Saab J-39 will be available.

During the 2016 Olympic Games Embraer/Northrop F-5EM, armed with Rafael Python 4 air-to-air missiles were transferred between 04 and August 21 from Natal AB to Manaus AB order to insure locally the air defence.

OPERATIONS

Agata
These operations, in collaboration with the Army and fluvial Navy, concentrate against illegal trafficking of drugs, arms and merchandise along Brazilian borders; the Tigers are used as air cover for the attacking aircrafts.

Agata 1 operation in August 2011 was along the border with Colombia with  the participation of four Embraer/Northrop F-5EM in combination with 5 Super Tucanos on 10-08-11 of the 1░/4░ GAV, 2 Embraer R-99,
2 UH-60 and one Cessna C-98.

                                     

Agata 2 was the second operation, starting on 16-09-11, this time along the border with Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, in September 2011 with the participation of Embraer/Northrop F-5EM, Super Tucano and
Sikorsky UH-60 and transport aircrafts/helicopters.

Agata 3, a large scale operation along the 7'000 km border with Bolivia, Peru and Paraguay starting 22-11-11. Embraer/Northrop F-5EM, Embraer A-1 and Super Tucanos participating to the operation were based at
Tabatinga, Campo Grande, Cuiaba, Vilhena and Porto Velho.

  Photo: Brazilian AF/Sgt Batista
Embraer/Northrop F-5EM 4873 landing at Porto Velho AB on 20-11-11 in preparation of operation Agata 3.

  Agata 4 began on 02-05-11. The Northern border with Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam and  French Guyana was controlled with Embraer/Northrop F-5EM fighters, ground attack, early warning, reconnais-    sance and transport aircrafts.
  The map of the country shows the borders
(light green painted) involved in the operation.





  Agata 5 lasted 30 days, starting from 06-08-12, along the borders with Bolivia, Paraguay,  Argentina and Uruguay; it included air-refuelling of Embraer/Northrop  F-5EM from Lockheed KC-130 in
  order to extend they patrolling time. The air crafts were based at Campo Grande  AB, Canoas AB and Santa Maria AB.
 
The map of the country shows the borders (yellow painted) involved in the operation.




 Agata 6 took off on 09-10-12 in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Rondonia  and Acre bordering Bolivia and Peru; it
involved 4 Embraer/Northrop F-EM, 6 Embraer  A-29 and 10 helicopters.
The map of the country shows the borders
(light green painted) involved in the operation.






  Agata 7 began on 28-05-13 and ended on 05-06-13 with  operations along all bordering states, French Guyana, Guyana,  Surinam, Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Peru Paraguay,
  Argentina and Uruguay
(16'886 km); an enormous enterprise.  Embraer/Northrop F-5EM participated from Canoas AB.


 

frame 1      Photo: Brazilian AF/cb V.Santos     
Early morning take-off for Agata 7 exercise from Canoas AB 28-05-2013
                                                                                  

Operations Agata 8 up to Agata 11 took place in 2014 and 2017; no Embraer/Northrop F-5 are known to have partecipated.

Air-to-Air refueling
Air-to-air refulling for such a vast country and the limited range of its fighter/fighter-bombers was vital; beginning 1990s 2 Lockheed KC-130Ms were bought. They are in service with the Ala 11.

Air Force present:    Lockheed KC-130/ Embraer/Northrop F-5EM                                                      Air Force future:   KC-390/ Embraer/Northrop F-5EM

frame 1                  frame 1         
Three Embraer/Northrop F-5EM of the 1░ Grupo Defensa Aerea and 1░/4░ Grupo Aviašao                   Initial in-flight refuelling trials from the new Embraer KC-390 took place in late 2016,
participated to an in-flight refuelling training between the 15 and 21 october 2017 taking off               followed by a "wet" successful sortie (involving Embraer/Northrop F-5EMs) near Santa Cruz AB
from Anapolis AB. Fuel delivery was by an Lockheed KC-130 of Wing 2.                                            on 19-02-17.

Inter-arms:
On 18-10-2016 till 26-19-16 an air-to-air refuelling excercise between 3 Embraer/Northrop F-5EM of 1░ GrCaša and the Navy' s Grupo Aereo de Defensa  Esquadrao VF-1 (one two-seater and one single-
seater Douglas A-4). The Embraer/Northrop F-5Es took-off from Anapolis AB.

                                                                               Photo: FAB Major Romanelli
                                                                                        Embraer/Northrop F-5EM 4847 flight-refuelled by Navy TA-4 N-1021.

                                                                             frame 1
   Photo: Brazilian AF
                                                                                      Pilot's view from an Embraer/Northrop F-5EMrefuelled by a Navy Douglas A-4