frame 1    frame 1    Força Aerea Brasileira / Brazilian Air ForceBrazilAF.html
Roundel            Fin flash            Credit:  Roundels of the world

                                         Last update 28-07-2021

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                                                       Brazilian_Bases

PROCUREMENT
Brazil expressed for the first time at the beginning of 1965 interest to buy 24 Northrop F-5A and F-5B to be delivered starting in 1966, but, as for so many South American countries, no export authorisation was
granted by the US government. The Chinese government offered in 1965 F-7M Airguards (a copy of the Mikoyan-Gureitch MiG-21-13).
Selection was in preference of Douglas A-4F, SEPECAT Jaguar, HS Harrier Mk.50 and Fiat G-91. A provisional total of 48 Lockeed TF-33A were instead bought.

The country changed its air doctrine from ground attack to air defence of the whole territorium in 1967, starting with a chain of radars.
Procurement of a new aircraft to supplant the remaining Lockheed TF-33A used in the fighter/ground support duties was taken again under consideration during 1967 and a commission (Commissaos de Estudos
para Aviao de Interceptaçao) was formed to find out the best suitable fighter.

According to a local paper discuusions were held with Canada for the purchase of 15 Canadair CF-5 to be delivered 1968, without results (probably a fake news as never reported locally).

The Northrop F-5 was evaluated again, sale of which was reluctantly approved by the US governement due to political issues, but quickly eliminated due to insufficent performances. Considered were the
GAMD Mirage III, English Electric Lightning, Lockheed F-104G and the Saab J-35. The Mirage IIIE was finally selected during 1970.

Finally, in July 1973 was officially announced the selection of the Northrop F-5E, after having considered since 1971 the Fiat G-91Y, GAMD Mirage IIIE, Lightning Mk.55, Saab J-35 and Mc Donnel F-4 (preferred by
the Air Force). A demonstration by F-5E serial 01401 was given on September 1973 at Embraer's factory of Sao José dos Campos. Selected and ordered were additionally 16 Mirage IIID/EBR.

On 30-09-73 a contract was signed with Northrop and in October 1974 36 Northrop F-5E "Tigers" single-seaters and 6 Northrop F-5B two-seaters (the Northrop F-5F was not yet built), without engines and other
equipment, were ordered under the program "Peace Amazon" at a cost of USD 115m.Though Brazil preferred a commercial contract to gain procurement and management experience, a Foreign Military Sales credit
of USD 72.3 millions was arranged for part-payment and further equipment for 47.7 millions was acquired separately under direct purchase. They were to equip 2 Esquadraos (Squadrons) at Santa Cruz AB and
1° Esquadrao at Canoas AB; two Northrop F-5B were to be attached to each Squadron for conversion training.

Thirty Brazilian Air Force personnel worked for more than two years at the Hawthorne plant to gain experience on latest manufacturing techniques and to maintain Brazilian interests. First Brazilian aircraft was a
Northrop F-5B.

Additional aircrafts were to be possibly procured to re-equip the 4° GrAv and the 10° GtAv, but usual budget restrictions made this impossible. Second thoughts about the purchase of the F-5Bs, due to funding
problems and the Air Forces preference to buy the new Northrop F-5F for more compatibility, had aroused in 1974 but US officials convinced the Brazilians that the aircafts were sorely needed because the majority
of its pilots were to transit from vintage or low performance vehicles, like the Lockheed T-33A, the Cessna T-37C and the Embraer T-26 Bandeirante, to the high performance F-5E.

To still save money and to trimm requirements for ground technicians the FAB decided at the beginning of 1975 to equip only two Squadrons, both at Santa Cruz AB, at least for that year.

Air defence was foreseen as main mission, ground attack as secondary mission. A reconnaissance capability was also foreseen, for which 6 (some sources mention 4) camera noses were procured, 12 aircrafts had
provision for these noses. The noses were received in 1975 when they were installed on four Tigers; a reconnaissance course was given by two expert USAF pilots at Santa Cruz AB to 1°/14° pilots. The aircrafts
were transferred to Canoas AB upon completition of the runway remaining at disposal for the 1°/14° Escuadrao, but the idea was to create the 2°/14° Escuadrao in the same hangar as 1°/14° Escuadrau to operate
the 4 reconnaissance aircrafts. The programm was cancelled, the noses were sold as scrap and the reconnaissance duty was transferred to the Embraer/Aermacchi A-1 based at Santa Maria

On 15-07-75 an off-set deal for a total value of USD 1.2m covering the production of 150 sets of tail units and underwing/center-fuselage weapons pylons for Tigers built in USA, was also signed by the Brazilian
company Embraer,
which was to undertake all major overhauls of Brazilian F-5's.  Discussions for the possibility of licence manufacture of the entire airframe as follow-up of the EMB-326 were also held, without exit.

frame 1  frame 1          Photo: Embraer
                                                                           Underwing pylon buit under licence by Embraer

An agreement between General Electric and the Brazilian company Celma at Petropolis (RJ) provided for the overhaul of J-85-GE-13D and -21 engines.
Depot and light overhaul of the aircrafts was to be performed by the Air Force's Sao  Paulo Air Depot, while S. Cruz AB was to take care of field and light maintanance.

A first group of 5 pilots started training in USA, at Williams AFB with the 425th Tactical Fighter Squadron, during the summer of 1974 a complete course lasting six months; other 5 followed during September 1974.
Of these, 6 qualified as instructors to form a training unit at S. Cruz AB, using F-5Bs. The first intake completed training by 12-74 having flown around 80 hours. Later Brazilian pilots, sometimes having followed only
a 16 weeks' course and with minimal F-5 experience, were in charge for the transfer from USA to Brazil.

frame 1 Photo: unknown      frame 1
Final checks at the Northrop Palmdale plant before delivery, Northrop F-5B 4800, of note                                Northrop F-5B 4805 a Williams AFB in May 1975. Squadron badge is not yet painted on tail
four underwings pylons and unusual Brazilian flag on rudder.                                                                       Photo: Archives F-5 Enthisast

On 28-02-75 Northrop handed over the first 3 F-5B at Palmdale to the Brazilian AF, arrivals in Brazil began in March 1975, when the first 3 Northrop F-5B (serials 4800/4801/4802) landed at Galeao AB on 06-03-75,
followed on 13-05-75 by the final 3 F-5Bs, always at Galeao AB.
The delivery flight of all Northrops' followed the route Palmdale/Williams AFB/Kelly AFB/Craig AFB/Homestead AFB/San Juan (Portorico)/Port of Spain/Panama before finally landing in Brazil at Belem, flying on to Anapolis
and Galeao Air Base (Rio de Janeiro).
It operated initially from there and from July 1975 from Anapolis AB, as the runway at Santa Cruz AB was very short, barely long enough for the Lockeed T-33A. Transfer to  Santa Cruz AB was on 03-10-75 when the
runway had been prolongued to 2'450 meters.

   frame 1                     frame 1
Northrop F-5E serial 4850 seen 1975 in Californai armed with Sidewinder AIM-9P Sidewinder                               Northrop F-5E 4823 at Williams AFB in May 1975, shortly before delivery.
(version never adopted by the Brazilian AF), without air-to-air refuelling probe.      Photo: Northrop                                                                                                                     Photo: Archives F-5 Enthusiast

Next delivery were F-5E 4850/4851/4852. The first 2 landed at Galeao AB on 17-06-75 (some sources state there were four aircrafts delivered on 12-06-75) but serial 4852 was lost at Belford Rox shortly before
landing, due to bird strike.

Further deliveries followed at approximately four a month until 28th February 1976, when serials 4852 to 4855 safely landed at Santa Cruz AB (some sources state 12-02-76); delivery were in-flight, starting from
Williams AFB with twelve stops, including Zandery (Surinam) and Anapolis, ending at Rio de Janeiro-Galeâo, accompanied by a Lockheed C-130H support aircraft.
See the serials page for additional known delivery details.

    frame 1       frame 1
    Line-up of first batch Northrop F-5E at Santa Cruz AB               Photo: Brazilian AF           Northrop F-5E 4834 of the 1°/14° Esquadrao, fully armed with two Mectron MAA-1 and four 250 lbs bombs                                                                                                                                                                  
Two Lockheed KC-130H were bought to extend the rather limited radius of action of the Tiger; the F-5E's were equipped with air-to-air refuelling probes, but only 13 probes were fitted in USA, the rest in 1976 after
arrival in Brazil.

An Chilean offer (unconfirmed and denied by Chile) to transfer its own F-5Fs in exchange for Brazilian responsability to train Chilean F-5 pilots was not accepted as politically unacceptable due to Chilean human rights
policy.

The acquisition of additional second-hand aircrafts was taken into consideration during 1980, without follow-up. A Chinese barter offer of CAIC F-7 each in exchange of 2 Embrer Tucano during the 1980's was not accepted.

On 28-12-85 an unexpected announcement from Brasilia revealed that approval had been given for the procurement of a further Northrop F-5E/F to make good attrition and in order to concentrate all "original" aircrafts
at Santa Cruz AB. These were to be completely refurbished aircrafts.
An appealing offer was received from South Korea, where the airframes would have been modified to zero time and updated to latest standard, but unfortunately not accepted due to costs problems. Further investiga-
tions to obtain lower priced fighters led to the evaluation of Chinese F-7M Airguards and Mirage III from several sources, all dropped for various reasons.

The US government offer in 1988 for 22 F-5E and 4 F-5F for USD 113.5m (named programm "Peace Amazon II") was successful. Eleven of these came from former USAF aggressor Squadrons in USA, whose disband-
ment was started in August 1988 and completed in April 1989, and fifteen from the 425th Squadron, disbanded in April 1989. They were not equipped with an air-to-air refuelling probe. The aircrafts were used first to
train  Brazilian pilots in USA.

The first five departed from Nellis AFB on 29-09-88, the last ones on 23-08-89, all from Homestead AFB with final destination Canoas AB in five waves. Brazilian pilots ferried them in 8 stretches, supported by a KC-137
precious to keep contact with the civilian air traffic authorities along the route as the fighters were not equipped with VHF radios.
The fourth wave left end April 1989 and was formed by Northrop F-5E FAB 4858, 4861, 4871, 4873 all in original Air Defence Command colours; they arrived Canoas AB on 10-05-89 (due to some mishaps on route)
flying from AFB Homestead to Nassau/Roosevelt Roads/Ilha Margarita (Venezuela)/Boa Vista (Brazil)/Manaus/ Belém/Fortaleza/Salvador/Rio de Janeiro/Canoas.

Unfortunately these "new" aircrafts were in poor conditions, needed a thorough overhaul and the installation of a VOR, GPS and VHF radio.

                                                                                      frame 1                   Photo: unknown
                                                                     The last Northrop F-5F, serial 4807, seen in USA with its former serial (40457)

Frame 1             frame 1     Photo: FMagalhes
               F-5E with dual Brazilian/USAF serials 4859/1386 at Williams on 14-04-89.                      Northrop F-5E 4873 seen from the accompanying Boeing KC-137 on its delivery flight near to
                                                                Photo: archives The Northrop F-5 Enthusiast                 NAS Roosevelt Roads (Puerto Rico) in April 1989, still in USAF colours, but Brazilian serial.

All "new" aircrafts went to the 1°/14° GAv at Canoas AB (Porto Alegre), the only Tiger Squadron now exclusively tasked with air defence, though the basic Emerson APQ-153 radar was of limited value. The "original"
aircrafts were returned to the 1° Grupo de Caça.

                                                                        frame 1
                                                                     Northrop F-5 4857 4870 in original USAF colours, as delivered, in use by the 1°/14° Esquadrao.
Armament
AIM-9B Sidewinder were requested at the time of original purchase, apart from standard 2x20mm cannons each with 250 rounds, conventional 500 lbs/1000 lbs bombs, napalm bombs, air-to-ground rockers, but
refused from the USA government, which finally agreed to sell them in 1980. They could be seen till 2007 at F-5Es wingtips but were non operational and were only use for structural stabilization. The new,
manoevrable, locally produced Mectron MAA-1 Piranha missile is in operation since 2004 for short range combat.

                                                                         frame 1        Photo: JA Moraes de Oliveira Filho
                                                                        Northrop F-5E 4870 with wingtip Mectron MAA-1 Piranha, underfuselage cokpit painted on,
                                                                        big tanks and training bomblets launcher.
Simulator
A former GE Training Center Compuscene III simulator with visual display dome was bought at the beginning of the 1990s to lower training costs, keep airframes flying hours and maintenance costs low.


Northrop F-5B saga
Operation of the early Northrop F-5B was slowed downwhen the more advanced F-5F were received. By the end of July 1995 only 2 F-5B remained operational. The Brazilian Northrop F-5Bs were withdrawn from use
on 22-05-96; they were all up for sale and transferred to Campo de Marte for storage.
A rather unhappy story followed. Former Brazilian AF colonel Gustavo Adolfo Franco Pereira bought the 5 aircrafts at an auction in 1996 for the price of USD 3.1 millions and paid a deposit of 155 millions Reals, trans-
action financed by an American friend, Richard Boulais. Mr Pereira even bought an hangar at Canpo de Marte to store the trainers. The auction was cancelled auctions, a direct sale was also done and again cancelled;
the aircrafts were never handed over to the (almost) new owner.
The main problem was the "end user certificate" required by the USA as the aircafts were of US origin, need for which the buyer didn't recognise, as the US law regarding it was approved in 1976 while the aircrafts
were bought by Brazil in 1973.
In the meantime the two-seaters had lost their serials and any inscription, were coded from 1 to 5 and repainted, with the upper surfaces dark grey, the lower surfaces in clear grey.
They were used as mobile static exhibition objects, as shown on this picture taken at Campo de Marte on 23-10-05. Photo: spotter.com.br

                                                                          frame 1
Mr Pereira discussed its rights as owner with the Air Force ever since 1996 when unsecsful sale was foreseen by USA broker as FOB Mojave, total less than 2600 hours total time, Disassembled and professonally crated, engines not included, military aviionics, all weapons and weapons systems removed prior to delivery.
He applied in December 2006 to the Brazilian justice to obtain either the aircrafts or refund of his down-payment. The Federal Court finally
judged that the aircrafts still belonged to the Air Force and  they were put on exhibition at various places.
  frame 1

                              

All aircraft were temporarely stored at Campo de Marte, seen here together with Northrop F-5Es        One, repainted in the original 1975 colours, initially coded "01" and later serialled 4800,
at PAMA-Sao Paulohile on mainternance.                                                       Photo: unknown         was assigned to the Museu Aerospacial at Campo dos Alfonsos and handed-over on 18-08-06.
                                                                                                                                                Here it is seen at PAMA-SP being prepared for exposition.                            Photo: unknown    

Fate of others are known: serial 4802, camouflaged, as a travelling exhibit; 4804 mountd on a pole in Rio de Janeiro-Galeao airport; serial 4805 at Santa Cruz AB mounted on a pole, camouflaged.

Fleet upgrading and search for additional aircrafts
A new project regarding the rest of the fleet was launched during the year 2001: upgrading the available aircrafts to a fourth generation fighter standard; this resulted in the Embraer/Northrop F-5EM and F-5FM models.
You can read details of the project under the Northrop F-5 Enthusiast page titled upgrades.

The Air Force also realised that the number of trainers (3 F-5F) was insufficent for conversion and refresher training of new and old pilots. As the Embraer/Aermacchi EMB-326 was officially withdrawn from use on
02-10-10 new pilots passed directly from the Embraer A-29 Super Tucano to the Embraer/northrop F-5FM, necessitating an greater number of this last.

Additional new aircrafts (both in double- and singleseater form) were to be operated by a new Operational Conversion Unit. During the year 2002 it looked among other F-5 operators for the best aircrafts available for sale.

A first offer of Saudi Arabian Tigers by Boeing, demanding the purchase of 2 F-5Es for every F-5F purchased was rejected. Swiss top maintained Northrop F-5Es were also up for sale, but no F-5F was available. Help came
from Northrop/Grumman's subsidiary Tiger Century Aircraft which had already projected to convert China/Taiwan AF single- to double-seaters and offered to convert 8 of the 16 Swiss aircrafts into two-seaters.
Memorandums of Understanding were signed on 30-09-02 and 15-10-02 between the Swiss "Gruppe für Rüstungsdienste" (Armament Group) and the Brazilian AF. Price for each aircraft was to be USD 0.5m "as-is". The
Brazilian AF cancelled, in a change of mind, the plan to modify single- to two seaters and requested on 14-01-03 the sale of Swiss F-5Fs. An offer for 2 F-5Fs and 14 F-5Es was of no interest to the Brazilian side. Finally,
on 01-04-03, a new search for 8 F-5F airframes was started with Singapore, Korea, China/Taiwan as well as Saudi Arabia.
                  
Three Northrop F-5F and six F-5E from Saudi Arabia were selected and a contract was signed on 29-12-05 between the Brazilian Aeronautical Commission in Washington and the company C&C International, acting as a
mediator, for the price of USD 24m to be paid in three instalments of USD 10m in 2006, USD 13m in 2007 and USD 1m in 2008. Brazilian pilots were to fly them from Riyadh to Recife via Dakar and other stations.

No information about the status of the deal or the arrival in Brazil of these aircrafts was given until the end of September 2009, when, surprise!, an official announcement informed that a contract had been signed for
the acquisition of 4 Northrop F-5E, 4 F-5EM (which had received locally a limited upgrade) and 3 Northrop F-5F from Jordan for USD 21m, through the mediator Jordan Aeronautical Systems Company.The announcement
gave also information about the cancelled Saudi purchase: the aircrafts were in poor condition; there was difficulty in obtaining "end-user" certificate needed according to the original pruchasing contract and the possi-
bility that these planes might not be available, as they were part of the new Saudi Eurofighter purchase contract.


A first batch of 3 F-5Es arrived at  Sao Paulo-Guarulhos airport on 19-08-08 on board an Volga-Dnepr Air Lines  AL An-124-100, still in Jordanian colours, together with several spare parts, inclusive wing tanks; all were
transferred to Campo dos Alfonsos AB for maintenance.
It was planned to invest 276 millions Reals for modifications, in order to keep them operational at least for another 15 years.

                                                             frame 1
                                                                         Former Jordanian Northrop F-5E still in desert camouflage, with last two of Brazilian serials,
                                                                         almost unreadable Jordanian and USAF serials at PAMA Campo dos Alfonsos maintenance base

Parque Material Aeronautico de Marte provides full structural and systems maintenance/overhaul on the Tiger, while complete General Electric J-85 engine maintenance has been undertaken since 2002 by Focal (RJ).

frame 1











    By the end of 2012 18 Tigers had been upgraded.The 46th and last first batch upgraded Northrop F-5EM was delivered to Santa Cruz AB,
    on 07-03-13; contract to upgrade the former Jordanian aircrafts was signed in 2012. The first ex Jordanian single-seater was delivered to
    Brazil in October 2013, while 2 double-seaters were delivered in November 2016.

    Defence of the Northern region aound the capital (Brasilia) was assured by some Embraer/Northrop F-5s from other bases, redeployed
    to Anapolis AB
when the early retirement took place (the end of 2013) of the Mirage 2000s used by the 1° Grupo de Defensa Aerea at
    Anapolis AB (Brasilia). The mentioned Tigers remained until the local pilots were re-trained on the Embraer/Northrop F-5EM and some own
    aircrafts were delivered
.

    Photo: Overfuselage/wings view of an Embraer F-5EM in new camouflage.






In 2011 it was decided that only three of all the eleven former Jordanian Northop F-5E/F were to be upgraded to Embraer/Northrop F-5FM standard, due to operational and budget (mainly) reasons. Only one two-seater
had been delivered in October 2014, additional two Embraer/Northrop
Embraer/Northrop F-5FM were to be received in October and November 2017.

           Photo:  www.aeroeo.jor.br                               frame 1 
                                                                                    The last (serial 4812) former Jordanian Northrop F-5F being worked on at PAMA Sao Paulo                               
                                                                                    on 16-10-11. In the background single-seater 4810.                

Retirement (as of 2012) of the first Embraer/Northrop F-5EMs was planned by 2017 but indefinitely postponed. In the meantime TAP Manutençao e Engenheria Brasil takes care of base level  inspections/ maintenance of
the Tigers; the first was delived to the company at the end of 2013 and re-delivered to the Air Force on 24-03-14 at Campo de Marte AB (PAMA SP) after having received the 600 hours inspection.

Air-to-Air misiles for the Northrop F-5E and its training.

Air-to-air missiles have in Brazil a tortous history. It was easrly realised that they improve dramatically capability of fighter aircrafts, but exact purchasing/use of them is sketchy and details below might not be 100% exact.
Any further information would be thankfully received.

During 1975 AIM-9B Sidewinders (both active and training missiles) were purchhased in 1975 and retired in the 90s; they served only to balance the wings of the aircrafts, never being used operationally or for training
purposes.

A project to replace AIM-9B with a local short range, infra-red, air-to-air missile was started in March 1976 at the Brazilian AF own Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaço (IAE) at Sao José dos Campos (at present named DCTA).
It was named MAA-1 Piranha and was equivalent to third generation US AIM-9L Sidewinder or IAI Typhon 3. Unfortunately this project had to overcome enormous financial and other difficulties, having started in 1976,
abandoned in 1986 and later completed ending circa 20 years later! In 1994 initial perational capability was reached.

frame 1

   First phase included release of missiles from Norththop F-5E (serial 4837) and EMB-326 (serial 4558) between 23rd and 28-05-02.
   The second development phase ended in 2003 and production was then started; the Brazilian AF received 4 production missiles
   types in order to have operational tests. These were MAA-1T for instruction, MAA-1E for excerrcises plus an inert model for training,
   Operational tests in 2002-2003 showed that the missile superior to the third generation requirerments of the Air Force.
   New tests were made by an Northrop F-5E to adapt the missile to the Mirage 2000 in local use; in 2005 tests were flown
   against flare armed Sea Skua drones.
   In 1994 the private company Mectron took definitely the project over, equipping the missile with higher Electronic
   Counter-Measures and performance to deal with decoys and pyrotechnics. First test was on  03-11-98, initial
   operational capability was in September 2002 together with the last tests, conducted test firings from Embraer AT-26
   Xavante, Embraer/Northrop F-5E and Mirage IIIE aircrafts. Development tests were done between 1999 and 2005 by the                                        Centro Tecnico da Aeronautica (CTA).
   In 2002 Air Force units started to receive its first Brazilian traning missiles, but it was never operationally integrated on
   the aircraft.

   Photo: gray Embraer/Northrop F-5EM 4865 with a training Mectron MAA-1, special Tiger drawing on the fuselage and 53
   years anniversary of the 1°/14° GAv mentioned on fuselage tank.                         Photo:  Brazilian AF







In the meantime the Brazilian AF tried to buy Sidewinder AIM-9L without success as the USA offered only the older AIMD-9D or AIM9-G/H.

Mectron was also contracted in December 2006 for a fourth generation improved version, MAA-1B Piranha, developed in a joint development venture with Airbus and Defence and Space company. Tests were to
be completed by April 2012; they form part of the present armament.

A further contract with the Brazilan company Mectron was signed in December 2016; tests were foreeseen to start in 2016 with the new Datalink BR-2, enabling the link of  Embaer/Northrop F-5EM, Embraer AMX,
Embraer E-99 and Embraer A-29s to put all aircrafts in one information envinroment.

During 1997 air-to-air missiles were again purchased in the form of Rafael Python 3, integrated in February of 1997. Real and training versions were bought. This was the first actually used during excercises starting
in 2001 and ending in 2005.
Reported air-to-air missiles deliveries are: 44 third generation Mectron MAA-1 Piranha, Raphael Python 3 (probably 400, delivered 2001), 38 Rafael Derby (already in use in 2006), 200 fourth generation Rafael Python 4
(possibly received between 2010 and 2015) from Israel. Certification programme for integration of the Derby training version into the Tigers started in March 2017, completed by the end of June 2017. Some R-Darter
were also tested on the Tigers.
                                                            frame 1  Launch of an MAA-1 (possibly B) from an Embraer/Northrop F-5EM.
                                                                                                                                                Photo: Brazilian AF

frame 1        frame 1
      F-5EM 4864 with underwing Rafael Python 3 at S Cruz AB on 22-04-07        Full air-to-air miissile load: short range wing-tip Mectron MAA-1 and underwing medium range Derby missile.
                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                        Both photos: Brazilian AF
Further improvement of the Tiger's air-to-air capability was the joint venture between the South African company Denel-Dynamics and Brazilian companies Mectron, Opto Eletronica and Avibra (officially announced in
April 2007, finalized by 2018) of the A-Darters. In 2005 it was announced the purchase of 10 South African A-Darter stock missiles for tests on the Embraer/Northrop F-5EM.

Financial problems due to the downturn of Brazilian economy make in 2019 the participation to its development doubtful, though official Brazilian certification was given on 26-09-19 at Brasilia.

                                        frame 1   Photo: Raphael Luiz Canossa
        Embraer/Northrop F-5EM 4826 testing MICLA-BR Tactical Cruise Missile (developed in Brasil by Avibrasil) seen at Canoas AB , circa September 2019.

The Argentinian newspaper Clarin mentioned in August 2017 known  contacts by Argentinia and Brasil for the transfer of Embraer/Northrop F-5EMs for a certain period, but this was denied by the Brazilian Air Force.

The last modernised Northrop F-5FM (serial 4810) was delivered from Embraer at Gaviao Peixoto on 16-10-20.

Embraer/Northrop F-5 replacement aircraft
The Embraer/Northrop F-5 and Embraer AMX/A-1 replacement programm, known as F-X2 competition, was launched in 2007. Participating to the long evaluation were Boeing FA-18E/F Super Hornet, Sukhoi  Su-35, Dassault Rafale FJR,
Saab JAS-Gripen NG. This last (local designation F-39) was announced as winner at the end of 2013, mainly due to commerial reasons and transfer of technology to Brazilian industry. Twenty-eight  Gripen E asingle
seaters and 8 Gripen F double-seaters were ordered initially flew for the first time on 26-08-19, as seen hereunder. The last is foreseen to be delivered in 2024. It first flew from Brazil on 24-09-20;
iinitial deliveries will equip the 1° Grupo de Defensa Aerea (GDA) at Brasilia/Anapolis AB); first four delivery is foreseen to be delivered in December 2021, starting to replace Embraer/Northrop F-5EM.

                                                  frame 1          Photo: Brazilian AF
                                   Old and new generation: simultaneous take-off from Brasilia of Embraer/Northrop F-5FM and Saab J-39 Gripen

Four Embraer/Northrop F-5EM had been been withdrawn from use by March 2021 and one Northrop F-5EM of the 1° Grupo de Aviacion de Combate made an emergency landing at BA S. Cruz on 31-05-21 with considerable damages.