Khong Quan Nhan Dan Viet Nam - Socialist Republic of Vietnam Air Force
 
   Credit:  Roundels of the world
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The Socialist Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) "inherited" 87 Northrop  F-5A Freedom Fighters and 47 F-5E Tigers after the collaps in April 1975 of the Republic of Vietam (South Vietnam); some were operational, others not, in maintenance or due to lack of spares. Immediate flighable were 41 Northrop F-5s., especially at Tan Son Nhut AB

Unofficial sources state that ca 60 Northrop F-5As (at least 2 F-5B, 9 RF-5A) and 27 F-5Es were abandoned; it was extremely difficult to be used by the new Air Force because there were insufficent and records  for the aircrafts; pilots and ground crew were only fluent in Russian language and procedures. Of help were former South Vietnamese personnel who joined the North Vietnamese Air Force, tough it is not clear if true and how many.

        Photo: unknown
A Northrop F-5A being tugged shortly after the end of the war by a North Vietnamese truck
(see flag); unusual is the tailcode HJC. (meaning unknown)

Air Regiment 935 "Dong Nai" was established on 21-05-75 at Bien Hoa AB for the use of the Northrop fighter of all variants by order of General Giap as part of the 370th Air Division ; on 27-05-75 the unit flew his first operational mission with the Northrop fighter. Its main role was air-to-air combat, role that was well known to the Air Force. US/South East Asia camouflage was kept.

                       Photo: Vietnamese News Agency
                    Northrop F-5E an F-5A seen at Da Nang with their early AIM-9B Sidewinders.
                    First two digits corresponds to Regiment number, two others aircraft number.

There was no peace for the Vietnamese Northrops, though the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) had collapsed.

Unofficial sources state that was modified to air-to-ground combat, a 935th Regiment's Northrop F-5A/F-5E detachment was transferred from May 1977 to Wattay AB (Vientiane/Laos) to help crushing a Hmong tribe rebellion. It flew air raids against Hmongs settlements using napalm and cluster bombs; later the aircrafts were replaced by MiG-21s.

                                  Photo: Xuan At
                                Metallic Northrop  F-5A Freedom Fighter 10271 at Bien Hoa AB early 1980s
                                Of interest three tanks and nationality markings position on the air inlet, above wings.

Relations between Cambodia and Vietnam were tens, starting late 1976 with skirmishes at the Southern border; by end of 1978 the Northrop fighters were transferred nearer to the border. At least 2 Northrop F-5As performed as fighter-bombers attacking headquarters, vehicles and weapons deposits. Known attacks were on 01-01-79 against Kompong Cham by 10 Northrop F-5 releasing 46 250kg bombs, against the Ponchentong by 4 Northrop F-5 releasing 16 Mk.82 bombs and on 05-01-77 against shipping in the Mekong (together with 1 Fairchild C-119); the unit received on 20-12-79 the title of "Hero of the People's Armed Forces".
According to a US source the usage during this time was by far more limited and the aircraft saw little use.

Chinese/Vietnamese relationship
The year 1979 saw also the worsening of the Chinese/Vietnamese relationship at a point that an open war took place on February 17th, lasting till March 16th. Use of Northrop fighter started on February 21st, together with MiG-19 and MiG-21s. Ten Northrop
F-5A and RF-5A from Bien Hoa AB were deployed to the North and declared operational. Five were seen end of February at the Hanoi airportof Noi Bai.

   Photo: Military art magazine
A metallic Northrop RF-5A during the war border protection East (Cina); in the background 2 F-5B 
retaining the South Vietnamese camouflage but having Northern serial.

Lack of spare parts compelled the witdrawal of the remaining aircrafts by 1981/2; unconfirmed is that much of the remaing ground equipment and weapons were later sold to Ethiopia and Iran. Transfer of the aircrafts was not possible due to the USA opposition. It seems that a handful of Northrop F-5s were last shown on 30 April 1985 commemorating the 10th year of the fall of Saigon.

The Regiment obtained as replacement aircrafts MiG-21 and later quite a different performance fighter: the Sukhoi Su-30Mk2.

Rumours
Mid December 2011 the local Defence Department reported tha one Northrop F-5E from Taipei to Ho Chi Minh City after having been updated under an one million "Project Eagle". It consisted of an upgrade with a new computer, navigational system, armament and structioral modifications, paint job, extension engine and service lifeto keep the jet n flyble condition for the nex 15 year. Nothing of this corresponded to truth.

Foreign assessment
Russia was interested to compare US against local aircrafts and helicopters technology; one Northrop F-5E, one Cessna A-37B, one Boeing CH-47, 1 Bell UH-1 were transferred by ship 
beginning 1976 to Russia. The wings of the fighter were "welded" as too large by Vietnamese soldiers but could be repaired upon arrival in Russia.
Testing was performed with great success in air-to-air combat against MiG-21SMs from 1976 at the Central Aero-Dynamics Institute (Tsagi) at Chukovsky, the Chkalov State Flights Tests Center
(near Moscow/GLIC in Russian) going on at the Akubinsk polygon (Astrachanya); they endeded early 1977, the Tigers finding its way to the OK Sukhoi for storage. Serial 73-00807 is given, but should be wrong.

A second Northrop F-5E with 236.20 flying hours was secretely transferred to Czechoslovia (via Da Nang) in April 1981 in two Aero L-39 shipping boxes together with ground equipment and two AIM-9B Sidewinder to Prague-Kbely AB to be studied by aerospace specialists. Shortly later it found its way to Aero at Vodochody, where it was again dismantled. A few information were of use on the Aero L-39 production; the aircraft was only allowed in Czechlovakia to rolling, had all markings reoved, it never never received local markings.
In 1983 was delivered
dismantled to Kbely AB museum where it was stored; it was not in the usual US camouflage, markings and serial numbers. In December 1989 (by the end of the Communist governement) the secret was lifted and the machine handed over to the museum, receiving Vietnamese markings.

                 Photo: Vojensky Historicky Ustav Praha
              Northrop F-5E 00878 with ferry tanks at Kbely AB with Vietnamese markings.

A third Northrop F-5E went to Poland on 09-77 in great secret, via Gdynia port, to be studied by the Technical Institute of the Air Force; already in December 1977 it was shown to high ranking political and military experts including a rolling on the apron at Warsaw-Bemowo airport. The Tiger was presented to the museum in 14-02-83, very few technical details were later used on the PZL I-22.
The secret was lifted at the end of 1990 when it was asssembled again (it was earlier disassembled) at Okecie airport.

   Photo: unknown
     The Northrop F-5E 00852 at Warsaw-Okecie without any markings.

One Northrop F-5A of Vietnamese origin has been on show at Datangshan (Mainland China) museum, photograph show it for the first time on 21-10-09. It is not known when/where it was delivered and its use.

Monuments
Several Northrop F-5A and F-5E were used as a remembrance to the war against the South. The aircrafts are mainly painted in phantasy camouflage, not used by the USAF or South Vietnamse AF. Some are without camouflage, metallic; some camouflaged are kept in pristine conditions, others are in poor condition due to the age, looking weathered, with rocket or AIM-9B Sidewinder armament; some have even US Air Force titles, while others have now a fictitious serial (7579) on tail. For details see The Northrop F-5E Enthusiast Page.

                                Photo: unknown

                        Northrop F-5A 01638 seen on March 17th, 2004 in a phantasy camouflage
                        at the Ho Chih Minh Reunification Palace in Ho Chi Minh City (ex Saigon)
.

       Photo: unknown
  Northrop F-5E 00851 in worn-out original camouflage seen at Da Nang.

                   
       Photo: unknown
                    Northrop F-5A 7579 (US serial?) seen at Bai Mac. The front fuselage big serial
                    was standard on Vietnamese aircrafts; small serial painted on tail replaced it.